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Science, Technology and Industry according to OECD

mgr inż. Alina Landowska | 07.03.2010


Alina Landowska, MEng | 07.03. 2010

On 15 December 2009, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) published a new report on science, technology and industry where the emphasis was placed on international research.  Authors of the report draw interesting conclusions about the effect of globalization in this sector which are based on information regarding patents, research papers, the mobility of researchers and technology transfer.


The report underscores the importance of joint funding of research: "[...]Today, scientific and technological innovation requires more complex and interactive processes. This added complexity has led innovators to turn towards partenerships to share costs, find complementary expertise, quickly gain access to different technologies and knowledge, and collaborate as part of an innovative network."


The analyzed data confirm that the production of scientific knowledge now concerns not only units, but also groups - from single institutions to teams of insititutions, and from the national level to the international. Exemplifying this phenomenon is the proportion of scientific papers prepared by the authors from more than one country, which tripled in the 1985-2007 period, and amounted to 22% in 2009. At the same time, the amount of scientific articles published in the OECD countries is decreasing, while the number of articles from Latin America and Southeast Asia is increasing rapidly.


An analogous situation has been created regarding patents. For example, over 40% of Belgian, Swiss and Taipei patents in recent years have been the result of cooperation with foreign inventors, whereas in France, Germany, Sweden, USA and the UK the figure is also relatively high - from 11% to 25%. At the same time, in many other countries, there is a maintenence of a trend of steady growth in the proportion of international patents.


The balance of payments in the field of technology is another noteworthy matter: "In most OECD countries, technological receipts and payments increased sharply during the 1990s and up to and up to mid-2000."


A significant fact noted in the report is cuts in spending on research and development (R&D), which were first undertaken by industry in the first quarter of 2009, reducing operating costs.


Economic slowdown, international competition, environmental risks and longer life expectancy are global phenomena concerning all countries. At the same time the scale of these problems goes beyond the solving capacity of any single country. Therefore, strongly emphasised is an outright requirement of cooperation of all countries in order to minimise the negative effects of the global changes.

The authors conclude the report as follows: "[...] As foreign affiliates provide access to new technologies and generate knowledge spillovers for domestic firms, lower inflows of FDI will reduce innovation capabilities in the host country [...]."


Detailed information on the report is available on the website:

http://www.oecd.org/sti/scoreboard 

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  • Tag's:

    badania i rozwój, transfer technologii, innowacje, przemysł, technologie, nauka, globalizacja

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